Shandong is a northern province in the Peoples’ Republic of China. Furniture from Shandong needed to withstand the extreme climates in the north and therefore were constructed with sturdy frames. Parts are connected without the use of metal nails or glue. Simple hand tools were used. Often the northern elm furniture was covered with natural tree lacquer (yumu chaqi), creating more of an eggplant hue. Chairs were decorated with the Chinese characters for ‘long life’ (shou) or ‘happiness’ (fu) on the back splat.
Hessler, Kimberly R. 2007. Chinese Provincial Furniture. Atglen: Schiffer.